I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Stygimoloch (Episode 176)

Episode 176 is all about Stygimoloch, a dinosaur with superior spikes across the again of its head which some assume is a juvenile Pachycephalosaurus.

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On this episode, we focus on:


  • A brand new paper demonstrates that ceratopsians in all probability didn’t evolve horns and frills to acknowledge each other
  • A really questionable speculation means that dinosaurs might not have been in a position to establish poison and by accident began to drive themselves extinct
  • Newly described materials helps to assist the declare that Paranthodon was a stegosaur
  • College students on the College of Kansas just lately excavated a potential younger T. rex from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana
  • The North Carolina Museum of Pure Sciences in Raleigh, North Carolina, just lately unveiled a clutch of oviraptorosaur eggs
  • The Philip J. Currie Museum in Alberta is launching a “Paleontologist For A Day” program this summer time
  • The Bess Bower Dunn Museum close to in Libertyville, Illinois (close to Chicago), has a brand new life sized Dryptosaurus to welcome guests
  • Yorkshire Museum within the UK has a brand new VR exhibit known as Yorkshire’s Jurassic World
  • This summer time, Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin could have dinosaur summer time camps
  • Colin Dunn from the Bureau of Land Administration leads Saturday morning hikes to Prehistoric Trackways Nationwide Monument
  • In Essex, within the UK, there’s a brand new vacationer attraction, an 18 gap mini golf course known as Mighty Claws Journey Golf
  • In Portland, Oregon, a demolition machine embellished to appear to be a dinosaur tore down an outdated dentistry constructing.
  • ScreenRant printed that Jurassic World struggles to make dinosaurs scary, we predict they’re simply not attempting arduous sufficient
  • Suppose Geek‘s April Idiot’s joke featured a “Jurassic World Dinosaur Detection System”
  • Mattel is promoting an enormous assortment of Jurassic World and Jurassic Park toys, Walmart appears to be the primary place to get them in the meanwhile

The dinosaur of the day: Stygimoloch

  • An official Snapchat publish for Jurassic World Fallen Kingdom confirmed that Stygimoloch will likely be within the film
  • Pachycephalosaurid that lived within the Cretaceous in what’s now the U.S. (discovered within the Hell Creek Formation, Ferris Formation, and Lance Formation)
  • A number of people have been discovered
  • Described in 1983 by Peter Galton and Hans-Dieter Sues
  • Kind species is Stygimoloch spinifer
  • Title means “Styx demon” and the identify comes from the river Styx, which ran via the underworld in Greek mythology, in addition to Moloch, the identify of a Canaanite god, as a result of it seemed so weird
  • Herbivore which will have been about 10 ft or over 3 m lengthy
  • Lived on the similar time and place as Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops
  • Had an uncommon wanting cranium
  • Had clusters of spikes on the again of the cranium, with one lengthy, central horn, surrounded by 2-3 smaller horns
  • Had quick hornlets on its nostril, and a pair of enormous backward pointing spikes on the again corners of its cranium (unsure what it was used for)
  • Had a comparatively small, flattened dome, so in all probability didn’t do a lot head butting
  • Cranium ornamentation might have been for show, protection, or for shoving matchings (locking horns, like deer), or to inflict ache when butting flanks
  • One article referenced a Stygimoloch cranium that was on public sale in New York a couple of years again, however couldn’t discover out what occurred to it, or who ended up shopping for it
  • A part of an argument
  • In 2009, Mark Goodwin and Jack Horner printed a paper arguing that Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex had been all Pachycephalosaurus, representing a progress collection (proposed the concept at SVP in 2007). They thought-about Dracorex to be the juvenile, although Bob Bakker and others in 2006 had decided the Dracorex specimen to be an grownup, primarily based on the ornamentation on its cranium and fused bones
  • Additionally, Williamson and Carr in 2002 agreed with Goodwin and others from a paper in 1998 that discovered these three taxa to be distinct primarily based on horn dimension and head form (Pachycephalosaurus had a bigger, extra spherical cranium, Stygimoloch has longer horns and a narrower dome)
  • Dracorex (named in 2006) didn’t have a dome, had giant horns, and enormous temporal holes within the cranium
  • Horner argued that we don’t know precisely how huge or how outdated any dinosaur species may get, and that juvenile skulls can look very completely different from grownup skulls
  • The thought for lumping the three collectively was that lengthy, sharp horns grew out of the again of the pinnacle for the primary half of the dinosaur’s life, after which the horns had been decreased because it reached maturity, and because the horns shrunk, the flat brow grew and expanded right into a strong dome. Additionally, the big openings within the cranium closed when it aged. Dracorex could be a half-grown juvenile, Stygimoloch could be three-quarters grown, and Pachycephalosaurus could be an grownup
  • Lined Pachycephalosaurus in episode 93
  • Bob Bakker mentioned he has studied horn and dome progress in trendy animals that butt heads and none of them present a reversal of horn improvement (similar goes for well-known horned dinosaurs, although Triceratops horns do develop bigger and its cranium modifications lots throughout progress). He additionally mentioned they checked out a juvenile Pachycephalosaurus cranium, about 2/3 the size of an grownup cranium, and that it had a really comparable form to the grownup Pachycephalosaurus cranium, with small horns, no holes within the cranium, and a big dome. The cranium is analogous in dimension to the Dracorex cranium discovered, however the two skulls look very completely different
  • Bob Bakker mentioned he and a staff in contrast Stygimoloch specimens with Dracorex and located their skulls had been comparable in dimension, so the variations of their skulls weren’t because of age variations (ontogenetic improvement)
  • He additionally mentioned these pachycephalosaur dinosaurs (together with Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex), in all probability all grew like Triceratops, the place bumps and horns bought greater as they aged, however not progress reversal
  • Pete Larson posted pictures of the Stygimolch he was engaged on between October 2016 and June 2017. Stated he discovered sufficient variations within the cranium to make Stygimoloch a definite genus (although couldn’t discover a paper of his findings, perhaps not prepared?) He discovered a pathology on the “longest” horn on the left squamosal (bacterial an infection), stapes (bone within the center ear) the primary acknowledged disarticulated vomer in a pachycephalosaur (small skinny bone that separates left and proper nasal cavities), and parts of the scholortic ring that was round each its eyes
  • A remark in one of many papers mentioned there’s a complication, in {that a} pachycephalosaur cranium present in the identical quarry the place Sue the T. rex was excavated was about the identical dimension because the Dracorex and Stygimoloch skulls discovered, with a dome dimension that was in the course of the 2 (may present the ontogeny). Nevertheless it quick spiked nodes on the again of its head as a substitute of lengthy spikes, just like grownup Pachycephalosaurus. This might imply the lengthy spikes differ inside Pachycephalosaurus (appears to be variation in Pachycephalsaurus squamosal) or they’re a definite function of Stygimoloch. Additionally, Pachycephalosaurus and Stygimoloch specimens had been discovered in several stratigraphies, although this kind of information was probably not collected for historic Pachycephalosaurus specimens (would want extra information)
  • Nick Longrich and others printed a examine in 2010 that steered all flat-skulled pachycephalosaurs had been juveniles
  • Want extra fossils
  • Quote from Bob Bakker: “The important thing to correct interpretations of a fossil species is to be ready to be shocked; don’t assume that each one the traditional creatures and ecosystems match neatly into the ecological typecasting of contemporary species.”

Enjoyable Truth:

Paranthodon (Pah-RAN-tha-don) africanus was the primary dinosaur found in Africa.

This episode was dropped at you by:

TRX Dinosaurs, which makes lovely and life like dinosaur sculptures, puppets, and displays. You’ll be able to see some superb examples and works in progress on Instagram @trxdinosaurs.

Enter to win a TRX Dinosaurs-made 1:1 scale Velociraptor sculpture. It’s open to anybody within the US or Canada (besides Quebec) ages 18 and older to win. Full guidelines are at https://iknowdino.com/velociraptor-sculpture-sweepstakes-official-rules

This week’s hyperlink to enter is http://bit.ly/Velociraptor176

And by the Royal Tyrrell Museum, which is positioned in southern Alberta, Canada. Proper now they’re internet hosting their free-to-attend Winter speaker collection (additionally on YouTube). Extra info will be discovered at tyrrellmuseum.com.